It is the most serious type of skin cancer, which develops in the cells (melanocytes) that produce melanin — the pigment that gives your skin its colour. Melanoma can also form in your eyes and, rarely, inside your body, such as in your nose or throat.
The exact cause of all melanomas isn’t clear, but exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning lamps and beds increases your risk of developing melanoma. Limiting your exposure to UV radiation can help reduce your risk of melanoma.
The risk of melanoma seems to be increasing in people under 40, especially women. Knowing the warning signs of skin cancer can help ensure that cancerous changes are detected and treated before cancer has spread. Melanoma can be treated successfully if it is detected early.
It can develop anywhere in your body. Mostly it is developed in the areas that have had exposure to the sun such as your back, legs, arms, and face.
It can also occur in areas that don’t expose to the sunlight such as the soles of your feet, palms of your hands, and fingernail beds this type of melanoma is common in people with darker skins.
The major Melanoma signs and symptoms are:
1) Change in the existing mole
2) Development of a new pigmented growth on the skin
Mostly it occurs if something goes wrong in the melanin-producing cells that give colour to your skin
Usually, the skin cells develop in order or controlled way the new and healthy cells push the older ones towards the skin surface, where they die and gradually fall off. But in the development of some cells the DNA gets damaged due to this the new cells will grow out of control and gradually form a mass of cancerous cells
How DNA in skin cells gets damaged and how this leads to melanoma is not clear. it is likely that the combination of factors like environmental and genetic factors causes melanoma and even doctors still believe exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and from tanning lamps and beds is the leading cause of melanoma.
It is observed that UV light doesn’t cause all types of melanomas mostly melanomas that occur in the places on your body that don’t receive exposure to sunlight. This indicates that the other factors may contribute to your risk of melanoma.
Fair skin :
If there is less pigment (melanin) in your skin it is indicating that you have less protection from damaging UV radiation. If you have blond or red hair, light-coloured eyes, and freckle or sunburn easily, you’re more likely to develop melanoma than is someone with a darker complexion.
A history of sunburn :
One or more severe, blistering sunburns can increase your risk of melanoma.
Excessive ultraviolet (UV) light exposure :
It is proven by the studies that when skin is exposed to UV radiation, which comes from the sun and from tanning lights and beds, can increase the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma.
Having many moles or unusual moles :
Having more than 50 ordinary moles on your body signs an increased risk of melanoma. Also, having an unusual type of mole increases the risk of melanoma.
Weakened immune system :
In fact, usually, people with weakened immune systems have a maximum risk of melanoma and other skin cancers.